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PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

 

 

Size                             Unity             Direction 

Repittion

 

 

Balance :
This comes from arranging elements so that no one section is heavier
than the other.
It involves the distribution of elements in a creation since it is
the controlling of  elements in attracting attention. This  attention must be evenly or
unevenly distributed over the area to make sure interest is generated and
maintained throughout, design thus avoiding static or chaos .

Balance can be symmetrical or asymmetrical and isinstrumental is creating
movement, tension or calmness There are various types of balance horizontal,
vertical and radial.
To balance a composition is to distribute its parts in such a way that
the viewer is satisfied that the piece is not about to pull itself over

Proportion:
 This principle involves the relationship between
sizes – scale. it is about realistic relationship or ratio.
If all the elements in a design are all the same size it
would. Here are ways of ensuring proportion
 


  • height, width and depth of one element to that of another
  • size of one area to the size of another area
  • size of one element to the size of another element
  • amount of space between two or more elements
 
 
 Rhythm
This is one of the basic principles of designs It is the way a
certain element is repeated. Designs would be very uninterested
if some of the basic patterns were not repeated 
 Rhythm  attracts
attention in a design and allow the viewer to relax
 
Dominance
This is about the focus given to a special part or section
of a creation.
 It helps to create unity as the eye is attracted to a key
section which gives movement around pictorial elements
 
Harmony
This  means pictorial elements of the same type that “go” together. This happens when
 the eye is used to seeing objects together, so they form a group. eg. flower pot, plants ,statues all go to form the big picture .It is the skill of creating feeling such pleasantry and calm through colour, lines etc. Harmony can also produces energy, vitality ,tension and solicit varying emotions. 


  
 Contrast
This could be seen as the concept of opposite and  means pictorial elements that stand out because they are not alike such squares , circles and triangles. Red, yellow and blue contrast as they are so dissimilar. Contrast deals with combining objects together that do not normally “go” together, therefore making each other stand out more, than they would separately. Contrast produces variety and render the elements  to appear more lively.here are some of contrasting.
• size
• value
• color
• type
• texture
• shape
• alignment
• direction
• movement
 
Variety:
This  gives an creation interest and vitality, as the elements are repeated with enough change or difference to enhance each other., contrast , harmony and variety work together to give unity.It most be noted however that too much variety brings boredom ,disunity, confusion and visual fatigue.

Repetition:
is the use of similar or connected pictorial elements. For example, similar shapes, colours or lines that are used more than once, can be regular or irregular and even or uneven.
 can be in the form of radial effect where the repeated elements spread out from a central point.
Repetition may be in the form of gradation where the repeated elements slowly become smaller or larger. Repetition is enhanced by the rhythm generated throughout a creation that makes the eye move through a piece at a particular rate or speed.
 
Unity:
This  is the sense of oneness, of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole. this is achieved by repeating elements, overlapping shapes and directing the eye of the viewer around the work from one similar element to the next or along a line or shape  The eye is directed by the principles of design and composition so that the artwork has Unity. The real purpose of the principles of design is to produce a unified whole by the skill full organization of both element and principles of design the elements into a unified artwork.
 
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Balance,                      Proportion,    Rhythm, 
                      
D
ominance,               
harmony          Contrast